In this study, 32 cases of T-cell lymphoma of angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy type (AILD-TCL) were investigated for their association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). For this purpose, three different approaches were applied: polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of EBV-DNA, in situ hybridization (ISH) for EBV-encoded small nuclear RNAs (EBER), and immunohistology for EBV-encoded latent membrane protein (LMP). PCR and EBER-ISH produced almost identical results, showing that all but one case of AILD-TCL contained EBV genomes. Three distinctive patterns of EBV infection were observed after immunophenotypical characterization of EBER-positive cells: (1) in 26% of the cases, B and T cells were infected, the majority of which were B cells of immunoblastic morphology located in the remnants of lymphoid follicles; (2) in 42% of the cases, the vast majority of infected cells were neoplastic T cells diffusely distributed in the lymph nodes, but infected B cells were also present; and (3) in 32% of the cases, there were only a few infected small lymphoid cells. Detectable LMP was frequent in cases exhibiting patterns 1 and 2. These findings suggest that in AILD-TCL patients, B cells and especially T cells are highly susceptible to a persistent EBV infection, which often leads to a growth advantage of the infected cells. Thus EBV, in conjunction with genetic abnormalities and selective defects of the immune system, might be involved in the pathogenesis of AILD-TCL.