About 30% of adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 20% to 40% of children and adults with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) never achieve remission, even with intensive chemotherapy. Most die of resistant leukemia, often within 6 months or less. In this study of 126 patients with resistant ALL or AML, allogeneic bone marrow transplants from HLA-identical siblings produced remissions in 113 of 115 (98%) evaluable patients. The 3-year probability of leukemia-free survival was 21% (95% confidence interval, 15% to 29%). Leukemia-free survival was similar in ALL (23%, 12% to 40%) and AML (21%, 14% to 31%). Only 3 of 27 patients at risk relapsed more than 2 years posttransplant.