1. Secondary hemochromatosis has been sharply separated from simple hemosiderosis by defining the former as "a condition acquired as a consequence of anemia, blood transfusions, or both, and characterized by increased hepatic and total body iron content and unequivocal portal cirrhosis of the liver."
2. Previously reported cases are critically reviewed in the light of this definition.
3. Two new cases of secondary (exogenous) hemochromatosis are reported.
4. Anemia is postulated as the basic etiologic factor in secondary hemochromatosis by causing increased iron absorption; iron introduced in the form of blood transfusions probably only accelerates a process already in progress.
5. Prolonged futile oral iron therapy may be harmful.
6. A plea is made for a strict concept of secondary hemochromatosis as well as for thorough documentation of future reports.