Pathophysiologic considerations as well as non-comparative clinical results suggest that very high purity concentrates may slow immunologic deterioration in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected hemophiliacs. In an attempt to evaluate this hypothesis, we prospectively compared CD4 cell counts, skin testing responses, and changes of the clinical status in 20 asymptomatic HIV-positive hemophiliacs, randomly assigned to continue the treatment with an intermediate purity concentrate or to receive a very high purity product, purified by immunoaffinity chromatography with monoclonal antibodies. In the group switched to the very high purity concentrate there was no significant change of the CD4 cell counts over the 96-week follow-up period, whereas in the group continued on the intermediate purity concentrate, a highly significant decline was detected (P less than .013). Furthermore, in the very high purity group, four of six anergic patients at entry acquired reactivity to skin testing. The results of this study clearly support the use of very high purity concentrates for the replacement therapy of HIV-infected hemophiliacs.