One hundred twenty-seven patients with acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) were given busulfan 4 mg/kg on each of 4 days and cyclophosphamide 60 mg/kg on each of 2 days (BuCy2) followed by allogeneic bone marrow transplantation from an HLA-identical or one antigen disparate sibling. For 71 patients in first complete remission, 23 in second complete remission or initial relapse, and 33 patients with primary refractory disease, second or subsequent relapse, or a preceding hematologic disorder, the 3-year leukemia-free survival (LFS) is 63.1%, 32.6%, and 24.2% respectively. The actuarial probability of relapse for each group is 14.1%, 40.6%, and 61.0%. In multivariate analyses, relapse and decreased LFS were associated with advanced disease phase and with M4/M5 French-American-British classification. The LFS of first remission patients was adversely associated with a short time interval from diagnosis to transplantation. This study indicates that BuCy2 is an attractive preparative regimen for marrow transplantation in patients with AML and that prognostic factors for relapse and LFS are similar those described for regimens containing total body irradiation.