We report the nonrandom occurrence and frequency of the t(1;22)(p13;q13) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and its close association with the French-American-British M7 subtype of AML in infants (less than 1 year). This chromosomal abnormality occurred in 6 of 252 (2.4%) children and adolescents with AML (6 of 28 infants, 22%; 6 of 18 M7 AML cases overall, 33%; and 6 of 6 M7 cases in infants). Infants with AML of M7 subtype and the t(1;22) often presented with prominent abdominal masses. Two of these infants were not treated and died early. Three of four treated infants entered complete remission with therapy for AML; the remaining infant died of hemorrhage on day 8. Of the three infants who entered remission, only one remains alive and disease free at 5+ months. The other two infants relapsed in the bone marrow at 5 and 2 months from the start of therapy, respectively. We conclude that M7 AML with the t(1;22) usually presents in infants with extensive infiltration of abdominal organs by leukemic cells and may confer a poor prognosis despite intensive AML-directed treatment. Identification of this nonrandom translocation exclusively in infants with acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMkL) implies that it may serve as an additional diagnostic marker for this disease and links it to the pathogenesis of AMkL in infants.