A new case of heterozygous dysfibrinogenemia characterized by an amino acid replacement in the NH2-terminal region of the fibrin alpha-chain was found in a 27-year-old woman with a bleeding problem. Her one-stage prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were slightly prolonged, and the purified fibrinogen from this patient had a markedly prolonged thrombin or reptilase time. Release of fibrinopeptides A and B was normal, but the polymerization of fibrin monomers was impaired. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the purified fibrinogen under the reduced condition showed no abnormalities in the apparent molecular weights of its three chains. Reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of the lysylendopeptidase-cleaved purified A alpha-chains showed a decrease in one peptide compared with the normal amount and the appearance of an abnormal peptide peak. These peptides were treated with thrombin and further separated on HPLC. Amino acid sequence analysis of the abnormal peptide indicated that A alpha proline-18, the second residue from the NH2-terminus of the fibrin alpha-chain, was replaced by leucine. The synthetic peptide Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro inhibited both thrombin- and reptilase-induced fibrin aggregation, but Gly-Leu- Arg-Pro showed little or no inhibition under the same conditions. The discovery of this abnormal fibrinogen supports the findings that A alpha proline-18 is important as part of the polymerization site in the NH2-terminus of the fibrin alpha-chain. The propositus' mother had the same abnormal fibrinogen. This unique inherited abnormal fibrinogen was designated as fibrinogen Kyoto II.