We have identified the mutation in a phosphoglycerate kinase variant (PGK-Matsue) associated with severe enzyme deficiency, congenital nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia, and mental disorders. The mRNA coding for PGK was reverse transcribed and amplified by the polymerase chain reaction. Nucleotide sequencing of the variant cDNA showed a point mutation, a T/A----C/G transition in exon 3 of the variant gene. No other mutation was found in all coding regions of PGK-Matsue. The nucleotide change created an additional NciI cleavage site in the variant gene; thus, the NciI fragment types detected by Southern blot hybridization differ in the variant DNA and normal DNA. The mutation should cause Leu----Pro substitution at the 88th position from the NH2- terminal Ser of PGK. Because the Leu----Pro substitution is expected to induce serious perturbation and instability in the protein structure, the severe enzyme deficiency is mainly caused by more rapid in vivo denaturation and degradation of the variant enzyme.