While varying degrees of spectrin deficiency have been found in the majority of patients with hereditary spherocytosis (HS), a combined severe deficiency of both spectrin and the spectrin-binding protein, ankyrin, has been reported only in two patients with severe HS. To elucidate the molecular basis of these protein deficiencies, we have studied the synthesis, assembly, and the mRNA levels of spectrin and ankyrin in peripheral blood reticulocytes in one of the previously reported probands. Pulse-labeling studies showed that in HS reticulocytes, the synthesis of alpha-spectrin was comparable with control reticulocytes while that of beta-spectrin was increased about fourfold, presumably reflecting increased erythropoietic drive. On the HS reticulocyte membrane, the amount of newly assembled spectrin was reduced to about half of the control values, presumably reflecting a decrease in the synthesis of the spectrin binding protein, ankyrin: the ankyrin synthesis was nearly absent in the cytosol and the amounts of membrane-associated ankyrin were reduced to about half of the normal values. The changes in the amounts of spectrin and ankyrin mRNAs quantitated by slot blot and Northern blot analyses were comparable with changes in the synthesis of these proteins: The alpha spectrin mRNA was within a control range and the beta-spectrin mRNA was slightly increased, while the amounts of ankyrin mRNA were reduced to about 50% of control values. We conclude that the primary defect underlying the combined spectrin and ankyrin deficiency is a deficiency of ankyrin mRNA leading to a reduced synthesis of ankyrin which, in turn, underlies the decreased assembly of spectrin on the membrane.
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