A strictly factor-dependent cell line (UCSD/AML1) was established from a patient with the syndrome of multilineage acute leukemia with high platelets. The patient's cells and the cell line karyotype were 45,XX,- 7,t(3;3)(q21;q26), typical of the syndrome of acute leukemia with high platelets. The cell line expresses CD34, CD7, TdT, and myeloid (CD13, CD14, CD33) and megakaryocyte/platelet (CD36, CD41, CD42b, CDw49b) antigens. In short-term culture, UCSD/AML1 cells proliferate in response to interleukin-3 (IL-3), IL-4, IL-6, macrophage colony- stimulating factor (M-CSF), and granulocyte-macrophage CSF (GM-CSF), but not IL-1, IL-2, IL-5, or G-CSF. In long-term culture, proliferation can be sustained by GM-CSF, IL-6, or M-CSF. When maintained in GM-CSF, a small percentage of cells form multinucleated megakaryocyte-like giant cells. Culture with GM-CSF combined with IL-6, but not with IL-6 alone, increased giant cell formation fourfold to sevenfold. IL-6 alone or in combination with GM-CSF increased expression of platelet-related antigens. In contrast, culture with phorbol ester induced formation of macrophage-like cells. UCSD/AML1 is the first human acute nonlymphocytic leukemia cell line established from a patient with an acute leukemia syndrome associated with a specific chromosome abnormality.