This study describes a process by which serine proteases that contain an S-1 arginine subsite and active site histidine may be inactivated and subsequently quantitated using a combination of peptidyl chloromethylketone chemistry and immune recognition technology. Active site labeling and inactivation of proteases is attained by modification of the active site histidine with a peptidyl chloromethylketone. In the specific illustrations demonstrated, we used the compound biotinyl- epsilon-aminocaproyl-phenylalanylprolylarginyl chloromethylketone. This reagent reacts quantitatively and specifically with the active site histidine of a wide variety of proteases that are elaborated in the coagulation and fibrinolytic system. The inactivated enzyme(s) may be quantitated by combinations of antiprotein antibodies and avidin binding technology using the biotin moiety on the peptide inhibitor. We have demonstrated the capability of capture of inactivated enzyme products directly on to solid-phase avidin with subsequent quantitation of bound protein using specific antibodies. In the converse system we have captured specific proteases using antiprotein antibodies in the solid phase and have quantitated bound enzyme by using avidin. Subsequent detection and quantitation has been achieved using the enzymatic activity of horseradish peroxidase conjugated either to the antibody or to avidin. Both types of assays are feasible, with avidin capture being the preferred mode when enzyme is evaluated in the presence of excess zymogen, as would be common in the evaluation of most blood-clotting enzymes. Assays are illustrated for tissue plasminogen activator, plasmin, thrombin, factor Xa, and activated protein C, which can measure protease concentrations as low as 50 pmol/L. Specific applications of the assays are provided in studies of the activation of prothrombin by the prothrombinase complex and of factor X with Russell's viper venom factor X activator. These assays measure the mass of active site present in the reaction mixture and are relatively independent of subspecies of enzyme or the environment in which the activity is generated. These assay systems provide powerful tools for elucidating product-precursor relationships in multienzyme feedback reactions involving zymogen activation.

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