Cyclic hematopoiesis in gray collie dogs is a stem cell disease in which abnormal regulation of cell production in the bone marrow causes cyclic fluctuations of blood cell counts. In vitro studies demonstrated that recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin-3 (IL-3), and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) all stimulated increases in colony formation by canine bone marrow progenitor cells. Based on these results, gray collie dogs were then treated with recombinant human (rh) GM-CSF, IL-3, or G-CSF subcutaneously to test the hypothesis that pharmacologic doses of one of these hematopoietic growth factors could alter cyclic production of cells. When recombinant canine G-CSF became available, it was tested over a range of doses. In vivo rhIL-3 had no effect on the recurrent neutropenia but was associated with eosinophilia, rhGM-CSF caused neutrophilia and eosinophilia but cycling of hematopoiesis persisted. However, rhG-CSF caused neutrophilia, prevented the recurrent neutropenia and, in the two animals not developing antibodies to rhG- CSF, obliterated periodic fluctuation of monocyte, eosinophil, reticulocyte, and platelet counts. Recombinant canine G-CSF increased the nadir neutrophil counts and amplitude of fluctuations at low doses (1 micrograms/kg/d) and eliminated all cycling of cell counts at high doses (5 and 10 micrograms/kg/d). These data suggest significant differences in the actions of these growth factors and imply a critical role for G-CSF in the homeostatic regulation of hematopoiesis.

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