Fibrinogen Baltimore I is one of the very first congenital abnormal fibrinogens reported over several decades ago; however, the molecular defect of this dysfibrinogen has eluded identification. In fact, several reports misidentified the functional defect of Baltimore I, which has impaired fibrin monomer polymerization. Reversed-phase high- performance liquid chromatography analysis of lysyl endopeptidase digest of the purified Baltimore I gamma-chain showed an abnormal peptide not found in the co-existing normal gamma-chain of this heterozygote. Amino acid sequencing of this peptide indicated that gamma-chain Gly292 is replaced by valine. This observation was confirmed, and the genetic defect was determined by direct nucleotide sequencing of a polymerase chain reaction product containing codon gamma 292, which is mutated: GGC----GTC. The molecular defect of Fibrinogen Baltimore I lies in a region of the gamma-chain required for fibrin polymerization, suggesting that the integrity of gamma Gly292 is critical for fibrin assembly.