Recombinant rhesus monkey interleukin-3 (IL-3) was administered to normal rhesus monkeys in graded doses ranging from 3 to 30 micrograms/kg/d subcutaneously for 30 consecutive days or given as a continuous intravenous infusion at a dose of 30 micrograms/kg/d for 16 days. After a lag phase of about 1 week, a highly increased, dose- dependent production of bone marrow-derived blood cells was observed, preceded by amplification of bone marrow hematopoietic progenitor cells. Simultaneously, peripheral blood progenitor cells rose. The increase included basophilic, eosinophilic and neutrophilic granulocytes, monocytes, and the erythrocyte and platelet lineages. Characteristically, a T-lymphocyte response was absent. It is concluded that IL-3 in vivo stimulates blood cell production from an immature, multipotent progenitor cell.