We have investigated approaches to induce graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect in autologous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT) without graft- versus-host disease to improve survival and cure in leukemia. The present study shows that bone marrow transplantation (BMT) using syngeneic bone marrow activated with interleukin-2 (ABM) for 24 hours in vitro, followed by interleukin-2 (IL-2) therapy, was superior to BMT with fresh, syngeneic bone marrow (FBM) in terms of survival and cure in mice with acute myeloid leukemia (P less than .001) and led to normal hematopoietic reconstitution. Addition of IL-2 therapy after BMT with FBM did not improve the results over BMT with FBM alone (P = .98). These results suggest that the GVL effect of ABMT can be enhanced by using ABM for BMT followed by IL-2 therapy without compromising engraftment.

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