We found that a monoclonal antibody (MoAb) to CD9 antigen, PMA2, induced a rise in cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in fura-2-loaded platelets, and we examined whether this response was due to direct action of PMA2 on CD9 antigen. The rise in [Ca2+]i was dependent on the PMA2 concentration, irrespective of the presence or absence of extracellular Ca2+. The role of secreted adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and thromboxane in the [Ca2+]i response to PMA2 was studied using creatine phosphate/creatine phosphokinase (CP/CPK) and aspirin. Combined treatment with CP/CPK and aspirin abolished the rise in [Ca2+]i, although either CP/CPK or aspirin alone produced only partial inhibition. Inhibition of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) secretion and thromboxane B2 synthesis by an MoAb to the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex, PMA1, resulted in little [Ca2+]i response to PMA2. In contrast, thrombasthenic platelets, in which ATP secretion and thromboxane B2 synthesis were normal, showed a normal [Ca2+]i response. When PMA2 was added to CD9+ mononuclear cells, no rise in [Ca2+]i was observed. Thus, we conclude that binding of monoclonal immunoglobulin G molecules to the CD9 antigen raises [Ca2+]i through the effect of secreted ADP and thromboxane on platelets, and that CD9 antigen is not directly involved in induction of Ca2+ influx and mobilization.