We describe the membrane localization of a new platelet-specific alloantigen, designated Naka, that is involved in refractoriness to HLA- matched platelet transfusions. By indirect immunoprecipitation, anti- Naka antibody precipitated a single, radiolabeled platelet membrane protein with a molecular weight (mol wt) of 91 Kd from Naka-positive platelets. When radiolabeled Naka-negative platelets were used as a source of target antigens, no radiolabeled proteins were precipitated. The analyses using nonreduced-reduced two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and using rabbit antiglycoprotein (GP)IV demonstrated that this protein corresponds to GPIV (alternatively GPIIIb). Furthermore, in dot immunobinding, anti- Naka antibody bound to purified GPIV. Our results provide definitive evidence that the Naka alloantigen is carried on GPIV. These results also demonstrate that, on occasion, antibodies against GPIV may play an important role in refractoriness to platelet transfusions.