The records of 268 consecutive patients with acute hypergranular promyelocytic leukemia, treated at 29 Italian centers between January 1984 and December 1987, have been reviewed to assess the incidence of early hemorrhagic deaths and the effectiveness of various antihemorrhagic treatments. Three separate groups were considered: 94 patients were treated with heparin, 67 with anti-fibrinolytics (tranexamic acid, epsilon-aminocaproic acid, or aprotinin), and 107 with supportive therapy alone. The overall incidence of early hemorrhagic death (within the first 10 days of treatment) was 9.4%, with no significant differences between the various groups. Similarly, there were no differences in complete remission rates or duration of survival. The consumption of packed red blood cells and platelet concentrates was similar for two of the groups, and there was a significantly greater use of platelet concentrates for heparin-treated patients. High blast cell counts on the day of admission were significantly associated with hemorrhagic death within the first 10 days. These counts, plus high blast cell counts and low platelet counts, were associated with death within 24 hours.