Multi-colony stimulating factor (Multi-CSF, interleukin-3, IL-3) and granulocyte-CSF (G-CSF) administered concurrently as an intravenous (IV) injection induce a peripheral neutrophilia that is approximately additive in comparison with the neutrophilia induced by IL-3 and G-CSF individually. The bone marrow (BM) at 12 hours is depleted of mature neutrophils and shows a left-shifted myeloid hyperplasia, consistent with the neutrophil-releasing and myeloproliferative activities of both IL-3 and G-CSF individually. The BM at 24 hours shows a replenished reserve of mature neutrophils and a synergistic left-shifted myeloid hyperplasia as compared with IL-3 and G-CSF alone. Daily IV injections of IL-3 plus G-CSF for 1 week also induce an approximately additive daily peripheral neutrophilia. The BM after a week's administration of IL-3 plus G-CSF shows a generalized myeloid hyperplasia with a synergistic increase in mature neutrophils as compared with IL-3 or G- CSF alone. Daily injection of IL-3 plus G-CSF induced a significant decrease in erythroid, lymphoid, and eosinophilic marrow precursors, possibly owing to a myelophthisic effect of the myeloid hyperplasia and despite the fact that IL-3 alone induced a significant erythroid hyperplasia.