A Y-chromosome-specific in situ hybridization assay was used to assess the frequency with which host bone marrow cells are retained after marrow grafting. The majority of patients (74%) showed the presence of both host and donor marrow cells when assayed 14 days after transplant. By 84 days posttransplant only 4% of the patients retained host marrow cells. Only 1 of 19 evaluable patients analyzed over 1 year posttransplant showed minimal retention of host cells. No statistical correlation was found between retention of host cells posttransplant and the development of relapse or acute or chronic graft-versus-host disease. Pretransplant conditioning regimen, HLA-matching, diagnosis, disease status at transplant, ABO-matching, and patient age also showed no correlation with the retention of host cells posttransplant.

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