A complete hematologic remission was achieved in a patient with therapy- related preleukemia and transfusion-dependent pancytopenia after treatment with recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony- stimulating factor (GM-CSF). The patient remained in remission for nearly 1 year despite the discontinuation of GM-CSF treatment. Several lines of evidence suggest that normal hematopoiesis was restored after GM-CSF treatment. First, the cytogenetic anomaly, which was present before GM-CSF, completely disappeared after three cycles of treatment. Cytogenetic conversion was documented by conventional karyotypic evaluation of mitotic bone marrow cell preparations as well as by premature chromosome condensation analysis of the nonmitotic cells of bone marrow and peripheral blood. Second, the growth pattern and cycle status of bone marrow granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM) and erythroid (BFU-E) progenitor cells were found to be normal during remission. Third, X chromosome-linked restriction fragment length polymorphism- methylation analysis of DNA from mononuclear cells (greater than 80% lymphocytes) and mature myeloid elements showed a polyclonal pattern. These findings suggest that restoration of hematopoiesis in this patient after GM-CSF treatment may have resulted from suppression of the abnormal clone and a selective growth advantage of normal elements.

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