Factor X Friuli was isolated from plasma by immunoaffinity and ion exchange chromatography and compared with normal factor X purified by the same method. Similar molecular weights were observed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of the intact or activated factor X molecules including their respective heavy and light chains. These data indicated that there were no gross structural differences between the normal and variant proteins. Immunochemical assays employing either polyclonal or 46 monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) did not reveal any structural deviations. Two- dimensional peptide maps indicated that while the light chains of normal and Friuli factor X were very similar, the heavy chains of the native and activated molecules contained a limited number of differences. These data suggested that the defect in factor X Friuli may be a point mutation which lies within the activated heavy chain defined by the 195–424 amino acid sequence. Activation of factor X Friuli in purified systems showed that Russell's viper venom cleaved the molecule at 70% of the normal rate, while the rate of proteolysis of the variant protein was reduced 98% and 75% when incubated with the extrinsic and intrinsic activation complexes, respectively. These data support the clinical laboratory findings and the hypothesis that the defect associated with the Friuli variant may reflect an abnormal interaction between factor X Friuli and the nonproteolytic cofactors of the extrinsic and intrinsic factor X activation complexes. Fluorescence polarization studies suggested that a bound dansylated inhibitor of factor Xa was not oriented to the same extent within the active site of the variant enzyme relative to normal factor Xa until the addition of phospholipid and factor Va. Activated factor X Friuli generated thrombin from prothrombin in a purified system, but at one third the normal rate that was attributed to the Kcat suggesting a secondary effect of this defect.