We have proposed that the blasts in acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) are renewal populations maintained by a small subpopulation of stem cells. The balance between self-renewal and differentiation in blast stem cells may be an important attribute contributing to treatment outcome. Cytosine arabinoside (ara-C) is included in most chemotherapeutic regimens for the treatment of AML. When ara-C survival curves are constructed, the drug appears to be more toxic when an assay is used that detects principally self-renewing divisions, compared with a procedure that depends on terminal divisions. AML blasts usually respond in culture to myelopoietic growth factors; their response often includes a change in self-renewal, differentiation, or both. These features of the model for AML blasts led to the prediction that growth factors would alter ara-C survival curves in a way that depended on the effects of the culture conditions on self-renewal and differentiation. Four AML blast populations were chosen to test this prediction on the basis of our ability to manipulate them by adding or withholding one or more growth factors. Highly significant changes were seen in the ara-C survival curves, depending on the growth factors present in the cultures as was predicted by the observed effects of the factors on renewal and differentiation.