The in vivo antithrombotic properties of human plasma activated protein C (APC), a natural anticoagulant enzyme, were investigated in a baboon model of thrombus formation on prosthetic vascular grafts. Infusion of 0.25 to 1.1 mg/kg/h purified, human, APC inhibited blood clotting, as measured by the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and reduced vascular graft platelet deposition by 40% to 70%, as determined by the real-time scintillation camera imaging of 111In-labeled platelet deposition. APC infusion also preserved graft patency. Hemostatic plug formation remained normal, as measured by the template bleeding times. These results suggest that APC administration may produce immediate antithrombotic effects under arterial flow conditions.