We investigated the molecular basis for a mild phenotype in a group of patients with beta + thalassemia originating from Northern Sardinia by definition of the beta-thalassemia mutation, alpha-globin mapping and beta-globin haplotype determination. In nine patients, we detected the compound heterozygous state for the -87 promoter mutation and the codon 39 nonsense mutation; in one patient, we detected the combination of the codon 39 nonsense mutation and beta + IVS-1 nt 6 mutation. These patients were either nontransfusion dependent for survival or became transfusion dependent later. We did not detect the -87 promoter mutation in any of 115 thalassemia major patients originating from the same part of Sardinia, investigated as controls. Heterozygotes for the - 87 promoter mutation showed statistically higher hemoglobin (Hb) levels and larger and better hemoglobinized RBCs as compared with heterozygotes for the codon 39 nonsense mutation. From these data, we conclude that the -87 promoter mutation is a mild thalassemia allele, able to produce a phenotype of intermediate severity even in combination with a beta degree-thalassemia mutant. The coinheritance of alpha-thalassemia or the -++-- 5′ subhaplotype in several cases may have contributed to development of the mild clinical picture. Characterization of the beta-thalassemia mutation in combination with alpha-globin mapping and haplotype analysis may allow a better estimate of the probability of a given clinical phenotype, thus permitting more accurate counseling.