We assessed the capacity of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and multilineage (Multi)-CSF to induce release of granulocyte-CSF (G-CSF) by highly purified peripheral blood monocyte (Mo) preparations. Our results reveal that GM-CSF and Multi-CSF, either alone or in a synergistic concert, activate Mo to transcribe G-CSF messenger (m) RNA and release biologically active G- CSF protein into their culture supernatants. G-CSF had no regulatory effect on Mo expression of cytoplasmic G-CSF mRNA levels and G-CSF protein secretion by itself. These differential actions of CSFs provide further insight into self-regulatory mechanisms within the growth factor hierarchy system.

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