The clinical usefulness of monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) against the cCLLa, an antigen restricted to B-chronic lymphatic leukemia (CLL) and its variants, was ascertained in 65 patients with overt CLL and 25 individuals with unexplained mild lymphocytosis. Healthy volunteers (n = 25) and patients with malignant and nonmalignant disorders (n = 58) served as controls. The following observations were made in CLL. (a) Anti-cCLLa MoAbs identified neoplastic CLL cells as judged by the high correlation (r = .985) between monoclonal surface immunoglobulins (Slgs) and cCLLa expression in all patients, and dual-label flow cytometry studies showing cCLLa expression by monoclonal Slg-bearing B- CLL cells but not by normal B lymphocytes. (b) The size of the circulating cCLLa-positive clone paralleled the degree of lymphocytosis (r = .987) and was associated with reciprocal (r = .893) relative T lymphopenia. Ten patients with borderline lymphocytosis exhibited a subset of monoclonal Slg/cCLLa-positive cells ranging from 16% to 45% of the total. These patients were indistinguishable from those with CLL in terms of age, clone lineage, and reciprocal relative T lymphopenia. Two patients have progressed to overt CLL within 19 months, but eight have not (observation time, 18 to 82 months). These data suggest that anti-cCLLa MoAbs are sensitive probes useful to identify and monitor cCLLa clones during their clinical and preclinical phases.