We previously published the results of a prospective comparison of continued chemotherapy or marrow transplantation for adults with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANL) who had achieved a first remission. This report updates that study now that greater than 5 years have passed since the last patient was entered. Among 86 patients eligible for comparison, 43 had no donors and were treated with continued chemotherapy, 43 had donors, but 10 declined transplantation and 33 were transplanted. Five-year disease-free survivals are 21% for the chemotherapy group, 48% for the transplant group, and 10% for the group with matched siblings who declined transplantation.

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