A myeloid-related sequence (mrs) has previously been identified that is highly expressed in selected subpopulations of myeloid leukocytes. Nucleotide sequence analysis indicates that mrs encodes what is apparently a unique 93-amino acid protein that includes an 18-amino acid leader sequence. Hybridization of an mrs cDNA probe to a Southern blot made from somatic cell hybrid DNAs shows 100% concordance with human chromosome 8, thus indicating that mrs localizes to this chromosome. In situ hybridization to metaphase chromosomes further sublocalizes mrs to bands 8q21.1–23 as 58% of the grains displayed on chromosome 8 were clustered in this region. This area encompasses the translocation breakpoint 8q22, which is rearranged in an estimated 18% of patients diagnosed with the M2 subclassification of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (M2-ANLL). When Southern blot hybridization was performed by using somatic cell hybrid DNAs harboring either a single 8q- or a single 21q+ chromosome from two different patients with M2- ANLL, a signal was only detected in the hybrid containing the 8q- chromosome.