The macrophage and granulocyte colony-stimulating factors, M-CSF and G- CSF, act in vitro to induce proliferation and differentiation of monocyte and granulocyte progenitor cells, respectively. We show here that both of these CSFs can be produced by stimulated human blood monocytes, but the M-CSF and G-CSF genes are independently regulated. Recombinant human interleukin-3 (IL-3) and GM-CSF primarily induce expression of the M-CSF gene and secretion of M-CSF, whereas bacterial lipopolysaccharide primarily induces expression of the G-CSF gene and secretion of G-CSF. These results suggest that under different conditions of in vitro stimulation the monocyte secretes factors that could lead selectively to either granulocyte or monocyte production.

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