Pure interleukin 1 (IL 1) was found to stimulate established human bone marrow stromal layers in long-term culture to produce colony- stimulating activity (CSA). Maximal concentrations in the culture medium were reached 24 hours after a single IL 1 pulse. The effect could be neutralized by a specific rabbit anti-IL 1 antiserum. Stromal layers, once stimulated by IL 1, continued to release CSA into the culture medium in the absence of exogenous IL 1. A second IL 1 pulse induced CSA release in an identical manner, as did the primary stimulation, indicating that the CSA released was actively produced. Using specific immunologic assays, both granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and macrophage CSF (M-CSF) could be identified in the culture supernatants, and production of both factors was inducible by IL 1. Shortly after initiation of the long-term marrow cultures “spontaneous” G-CSF and M-CSF release occurred. The release of G-CSF diminished following addition of the anti-IL 1 antiserum, indicating that endogenous production of IL 1 by stromal cells had contributed to this effect. These results further support the role of IL 1 as an important modulator of CSF production by cells of the hematopoietic microenvironment.