Constitutional pure red cell aplasia (CPRCA) is a syndrome of failed erythropoiesis usually diagnosed within the first year of life. Four patients with CPRCA received transplants with marrow from their HLA- identical, mixed lymphocyte culture-nonreactive siblings. All patients were resistant to corticosteroid therapy and were dependent on regular red cell transfusions for at least 5 years. Three patients were conditioned with procarbazine, antithymocyte globulin, cyclophosphamide, and busulfan, and one was conditioned with antithymocyte serum, cyclophosphamide, and busulfan. Three patients promptly had successful engraftments with establishment of donor hematopoiesis. One patient initially rejected his graft but received a successful retransplant. All patients are currently alive with Karnofsky performance scores of 100 and normal erythropoiesis of donor origin. Despite a history of multiple transfusions, bone marrow transplantation is a potentially curative therapy for patients with CPRCA.