Weekly medium change or midweek feeding of long-term bone marrow cultures (LTMBCs) results in a significant increase in total myeloid cell production. Proliferative myeloid cells peak 48 hours after feeding, and nonproliferative myeloid cells reach maximum levels at 72 hours. This increase in myelopoiesis is invariably preceded by a significant elevation in biologically and immunologically measurable colony-stimulating factor (CSF) in the supernatants of LTBMC. The level peaks 24 hours after medium change, then gradually returns to basal values. The decrease in CSF relates to its consumption by generating myeloid precursors because no fluctuation in the levels occur in cultures without active myelopoiesis. No significant inhibitors or promoters of CSF were detected. When highly purified L cell CSF, CSF in lung-conditioned medium, or CSF concentrated from LTBMC supernatant is added to cultures, an identical increase in myelopoiesis occurs. Anti- CSF antiserum, added to culture at the time of medium change, totally neutralizes supernatant CSF levels but does not affect myelopoiesis. These findings suggest a potential regulatory role for CSF in myelopoiesis in LTBMC. CSF appears to function within the microenvironment through a mechanism involving cell:cell interactions or by causing the production of other substances that stimulate myelopoiesis. Because exogenous CSF stimulates myelopoiesis, it is likely that it too can react either directly or through microenvironmental cells to stimulate primitive myeloid cells to divide.