We present findings on an infant with neonatal megaloblastic anemia, homocystinuria, and neurologic dysfunction that included developmental delay and tonic seizures. There was no methylmalonic aciduria. Cyanocobalamin therapy was accompanied by complete hematologic and neurologic recovery, diminished homocystine excretion, and subsequently normal neurologic development. Cultured fibroblasts and lymphoblasts showed a reduced methionine synthase activity and a growth requirement for methionine. Cobalamin incorporation by the patient's lymphoblasts was normal, but the proportion of cellular methylcobalamin in the patient's lymphoblasts and fibroblasts were markedly reduced and that of adenosylcobalamin normal. The reduced methionine synthase activity was independent of assay reducing (thiol) conditions, but normal levels of activity accompanied culture of the patient's lymphoblasts in medium with markedly increased cobalamin concentration. The characteristics of the reduced methionine synthase of our patient differ significantly from that of the previously described infant with cobalamin E disease and suggest that genetic heterogeneity may characterize this mutation.