Autologous mixed lymphocyte culture (AMLR) is an immunologic response with memory and specificity and plays a role in immune regulation. Effects of T cells activated by AMLR were studied in the regulation of in vitro erythropoiesis. AMLR-activated T cells were cocultured with autologous non-T, nonphagocytic peripheral blood mononuclear cells for assaying erythroid progenitor cells (BFU-E). T cells activated for 3 days in AMLR showed significant enhancement of in vitro colony growth by BFU-E. In contrast, activated T cells from day 7 AMLR caused significant suppression of BFU-E growth. Both enhancing and suppressing activities of AMLR-activated T cells were mediated by an la-positive and radiosensitive population within the OKT4+ subset. These observations suggest that AMLR-activated T cells may play a role in the immune-mediated regulation of in vitro erythropoiesis. It is also suggested that heterogeneous T-cell subsets may exert regulatory functions in the regulation of in vitro hematopoiesis.