The effects of in vivo administration of three monoclonal antibodies specific for T11, the E rosette receptor on T lymphocytes, were examined in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). These three monoclonal antibodies were of different isotypes and were shown in in vitro studies to have differing affinities for the monkey T11 structure. Furthermore, each antibody induced antigenic modulation of T11 from the cell membrane of the lymphocytes to varying degrees in vitro. In vivo infusion of each of these antibodies into normal rhesus monkeys caused remarkably different effects on the circulating T lymphocyte pool. Infusion of these antibodies at doses of 2 mg/kg caused the coating of circulating T lymphocytes with antibody, the modulation of T11 off the T cell surface and the transient clearance of T cells from the circulation. Yet, the variation in the extent to which these effects were seen with these different antibodies indicates that extrapolating from studies of the in vivo use of one antibody to the use of another may be quite difficult. These studies clearly indicate the strengths of this nonhuman primate system for exploring the uses of monoclonal antilymphocyte antibodies as therapeutic agents. They, however, also demonstrate that differences may exist in the affinity of a particular antibody for homologous lymphocyte surface structures in humans and in a nonhuman primate species. These differences may make it difficult to predict the precise effects that the infusion of an antibody will cause in humans on the basis of alterations it induces in nonhuman primates.