We have previously reported that the addition of monocytes results in enhanced modulation of the T65 antigen when normal or leukemic lymphoid cells were cultured in vitro with the T101 monoclonal antibody. In the present investigation, we extend these findings to demonstrate that monocyte-enhanced modulation is a phenomenon that occurs with a variety of T and B lymphoid antigens identified by murine monoclonal antibodies. Two patterns of monocyte-enhanced modulation were observed: (1) augmentation by monocytes of existing antigen modulation by the T101 and anti-Leu-4 antibodies, and (2) induction by monocytes of previously unrecognized modulation with the anti-Leu-2 and anti-Leu-9 antibodies. Enhancement of modulation by monocytes was also detected with antibodies to surface IgM and HLA-DR antigens. Antigen modulation on lymphoid cell lines appeared to be more variable than on fresh cells, with or without monocytes. Monocyte-enhanced antigen modulation was not demonstrated with two monoclonal antibodies against solid tumors. Monocyte-enhanced modulation was shown to be dependent upon the Fc portion of the antibody, but independent of proteolytic or oxidative compounds released by monocytes. These findings indicate that the results obtained during in vitro studies of antigen modulation may vary with the source of cells and the extent to which monocytic cells are present. In addition, these findings suggest an enhanced role for Fc receptor-bearing cells of monocytic origin in antigen modulation following in vivo administration of monoclonal antibodies.