Conditioned medium (CM) obtained from a human hepatoma cell line, SK- HEP-1, contains colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) active on murine and human bone marrow-derived granulocyte and macrophage colony-forming units (CFU-GM) and a factor capable of inducing granulocyte-macrophage differentiation (GM-DF) of murine myelomonocytic leukemic cells WEHI- 3B(D+) and human promyelocytic leukemic cells HL-60 when assayed in semisolid agar cultures. The human active granulocyte-macrophage colony- stimulating factor (GM-CSF) for day 7 CFU-GM and the GM-DF for WEHI- 3B(D+) and for HL-60 are not separable by acrylamide agarose column chromatography, eluting at an apparent molecular weight between 20,000 and 35,000 daltons, or by isoelectric focusing (isoelectric point, pH 5.4). In addition, SK-HEP-1 CM contains erythroid burst-promoting activity (BPA) and a factor that promotes the growth of human mixed colonies. SK-HEP-1 cells, which grow as an adherent monolayer, appear not to be endothelial or monocytic in origin since by immunofluorescent staining they are negative for Ia (HLA-DR), monocyte antigen 1 and 2, lysozyme, and factor VIII-related antigen. Positive immunofluorescent staining for keratin and fibronectin suggests the possibility that SK- HEP-1 is an epithelial cell line. Constitutive production of GM-DF as well as other hematopoietic activities including GM-CSF, erythroid BPA, and an activity that promotes the growth of human mixed colony progenitors by a human epithelial tumor cell line, SK-HEP-1, suggests that this cell line is a valuable resource for both large-scale production of these factors and the cloning of the gene(s) that code for these regulators.

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