A factor that augmented the phagocytosis of IgG-coated ox red blood cells by the human monocyte/macrophage line U937 was identified in cell culture supernatants from two of two patients with angiocentric peripheral T cell lymphomas, three of three patients with angiocentric immunoproliferative lesions that were not frankly malignant, and one of two patients with T lymphoblastic malignancies. The factor was not present in supernatants derived from 14 nonangiocentric peripheral T cell lymphomas of other histologic types nor in ten cases of B cell lymphoma and two cases of Hodgkin's disease. A similar factor was present in the supernatants of concanavalin A (Con A)-stimulated normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells and in the supernatants of IL-2- dependent T cell lines derived from normal peripheral blood. The factor had an apparent mol wt of greater than 50,000 daltons, was heat labile (100 degrees C for two minutes), and stable at pH 2.0. Its stimulation of phagocytosis was independent of any increase in number of Fc receptors. Thus, this factor is probably not gamma-interferon. This factor may play a pathogenetic role in the hemophagocytic syndromes associated with certain T cell malignancies and immunodeficient states.