Neutrophil function was studied in a patient with polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) glycoprotein-180 deficiency and in her parents. PMNs of the patient had abnormal chemotaxis, phagocytosis, adherence, surface charge, and membrane-associated events of activation. Selective defects to C3b, immunoglobulin G (IgG), phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and N- formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) are described, although C3b receptor density was normal. The parents were found to have abnormal adherence to nylon-wool fibers, abnormal transmembrane potential depolarization with PMA, and reduced amounts of glycoprotein- 180 in their PMNs. These studies provide further evidence that the oxidative burst has several different pathways for activation. They demonstrate that the absence of a single PMN surface glycoprotein is associated with a broad spectrum of PMN functional abnormalities. Finally, the observations made in the parents support an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance.