A monoclonal anti-human platelet antibody, TP82, is described, which caused irreversible aggregation of platelets in association with the release of adenosine triphosphate or [14C] serotonin, and which inhibited ristocetin-induced agglutination. Immunofluorescence assay showed that the antibody binds to platelets, megakaryocytes, and common acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells. The antibody (IgG1) immunoprecipitated a polypeptide of 23,000 daltons with an isoelectric point of about 7.0. The aggregation induced by the purified antibody and/or F(ab')2 fragments occurred in platelet-rich plasma and with washed platelets, but not with formalin-fixed washed platelets. TP82- induced aggregation was completely inhibited by disodium ethylendiaminotetraacetate, diltiazem, W-7, PGE1, and several metabolic inhibitors. At a concentration of apyrase or CP/CPK, which inhibited adenosine 5-diphosphate-induced aggregation. TP82-induced aggregation was only partially affected. Thrombin was not required for the antibody- mediated effects, since two thrombin inhibitors failed to block the reaction. The antibody, at least at a high concentration, induced platelet aggregation by a mechanism almost independent of thromboxane A2 formation, since cyclooxygenase inhibitors had little inhibitory effect on aggregation. TP82 monoclonal antibody is a new platelet- aggregating substance that interacts with a low-molecular-weight binding site on the platelet membrane.