A cell line, designated RS4;11, was established from the bone marrow of a patient in relapse with an acute leukemia that was characterized by the t(4;11) chromosomal abnormality. The cell line and the patient's fresh leukemic cells both had the t(4;11)(q21;q23) and an isochromosome for the long arm of No. 7. Morphologically, all cells were lymphoid in appearance. Ultrastructurally and cytochemically, approximately 30% of the cells possessed myeloid features. The cells were strongly positive for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase. They were HLA-DR positive and expressed surface antigens characteristic for B lineage cells, including those detected by anti-B4, BA-1, BA-2, and PI153/3. Immunoglobulin gene analysis revealed rearrangements of the heavy chain and kappa chain genes. The cells lacked the common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen and antigenic markers characteristic of T lineage cells. The cells reacted with the myeloid antibody 1G10 but not with other myeloid monoclonal antibodies. Treatment with 12-O-tetradecanoyl- phorbol-13-acetate induced a monocyte-like phenotype demonstrated by cytochemical, functional, immunologic, and electron microscopic studies. The expression of markers of both early lymphoid and early myeloid cells represents an unusual phenotype and suggests that RS4;11 represents a cell with dual lineage capabilities. To our knowledge, RS4;11 is the first cell line established from t(4;11)-associated acute leukemia.