A series of monoclonal antibodies recognizing myeloid differentiation antigens were prepared by immunizing Balb/c mice with HL-60 cells. Hybrids secreting antibodies reactive with HL-60 cells but unreactive with peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and further cloned. One clone was found to produce an IgG2a antibody recognizing an 85,000-dalton molecular weight surface glycoprotein, and a second clone was found to produce an IgM antibody recognizing a heat-stable determinant present on a glycolipid. We have termed these antigens Pro- Im1 and Pro-Im2, respectively (Pro for using HL-60 promyelocytes as an immunogen and Im for the presence of these antigens on immature cells). alpha Pro-Im1 and alpha Pro-Im2 were used to investigate the surface expression and tissue distribution of these two antigens. Pro-Im1 and Pro-Im2 were found to be brightly expressed on a fraction of fetal liver hematopoietic and bone marrow cells. Both antibodies mediated complement-dependent inhibition of CFU-GM, BFU-E, and CFU-GEMM formation assayed by soft agar colony and burst formation, indicating the expression of these antigens by early hematopoietic precursor cells. This was further confirmed by the induction of HL-60 cells by TPA to differentiate into more mature monocytes and macrophages, accompanied by the loss of both antigens. Pro-Im1 and Pro-Im2 were absent from peripheral blood monocytes, erythrocytes, and platelets, but Pro-Im2 was expressed on granulocytes. Both antigens were absent from thymocytes and peripheral T cells. Cytofluorographic analysis suggested their absence from peripheral blood B cells but that both were expressed on a minority of tissue B cells. Analysis of 150 cases of various myeloid and lymphoid malignancies demonstrated Pro-Im1 and Pro-Im2 expression on myeloblasts and promyelocytes from some acute myelogenous leukemias as well as some B cell malignancies, suggesting that these antigens are shared by early hematopoietic cells and a subset of B cells.