Serologic studies using four murine monoclonal antibodies specific for the common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA) and five monoclonal antibodies specific for the gp24 surface antigen indicate that these leukemia-associated antigens are present on cells of comparable tissues in man and in four nonhuman primates. As in man, adherent cell populations obtained from skin, lung, and bone marrow of Macaca fascicularis, M mulatta, M nemestrina, and Papio cynocephalus react with these antibodies. Similarly, granulocytes from both man and these nonhuman primates bind CALLA- and gp24-specific antibodies. Radioimmune precipitation experiments confirm the identity of these antigens. Our studies suggest that nonhuman primates can be used to screen serologic reagents to leukemia-associated antigens for potential toxic effects on normal tissues prior to their use in man. Similarly, nonhuman primates could be employed to assess the possible role of antigen-positive stromal cells in the reconstitution of bone marrow following transplantation.