We have previously shown that a murine monoclonal antibody (A3D8) identifies a human erythrocyte protein antigen whose expression is regulated by the Lutheran inhibitor [In(Lu)] gene. In the present study, we demonstrated by immunoprecipitation and Western blot techniques that the antigen defined by A3D8 was on an 80-kD erythrocyte membrane protein. A second 170-kD protein was coprecipitated with the 80-kD protein but failed to show antigen activity by Western blot analysis. The 170-kD protein, when analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in two dimensions, was composed of 50- and 30-kD disulfide-linked subunits. In(Lu) Lu[a-b-) erythrocytes differed from Lu(a+b+) or Lu(a-b+) erythrocytes in that In(Lu) deoxycholate erythrocyte membrane extracts contained trace amounts of immunoprecipitable 80-kD protein compared with detergent-solubilized erythrocyte membrane extracts prepared from Lu(a+b+) or Lu(a-b+) subjects.