Kidney allografting was performed in a group of ten beagles, and viable leukocytes infiltrating the transplanted organs were isolated during episodes of acute rejection 5 or 6 days postoperatively. These infiltrate populations, consisting predominantly of lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages, were found to have significantly increased amounts of procoagulant activity relative to control leukocytes isolated from circulating blood and lymph. Using nonspecific esterase staining in an agar microclot assay, procoagulant activity in the infiltrate leukocytes was found to reside in monocytes/macrophages rather than other coisolated cell types. By contrast, control monocytes from blood had no activity in this microclot assay. Procoagulant activity in the infiltrate cells was characterized as tissue factor. Increased amounts of this activator of the extrinsic pathway, as found in infiltrate monocytes/macrophages, may initiate clotting reactions and fibrin deposition within allografts.