A case of transcobalamin II deficiency with several unique features is described. The clinical presentation was typical, except for a slightly delayed age at presentation and the occurrence of apparent neurologic dysfunction from the beginning. The unusual biochemical feature was a low serum cobalamin level (97 pg/ml). Several cobalamin-binding protein abnormalities coexisted and antedated cobalamin therapy. Chief among these was the complexing of all serum R binder (transcobalamin I), leaving the patient with no detectable R binder. This defect appeared to be transient. Noteworthy, too, was a prominent binder of 70,000 mol wt that also carried the bulk of his serum cobalamin after therapy; it was prominent in his presumably heterozygous relatives too. The interrelationship between all these abnormalities is intriguing but unclear. The abnormality in transcobalamin II deficiency is clearly not limited solely to deficiency of transcobalamin II. It is also evident that this entity must now be considered in the differential diagnosis of low serum cobalamin levels in infancy.

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