Factor VII has been purified to homogeneity from bovine plasma by a procedure that includes affinity purification on an immunoadsorbent column. Recovery was determined by both coagulant assay and liquid scintillation counting, using 3H-factor VII as an internal standard. The purification factor calculated by both methods was approximately 120,000-fold, with a final yield of approximately 18%. Homogeneity was assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The material migrated as a single polypeptide chain of 53,000 daltons, and following activation by factor Xa, the one-chain zymogen was quantitatively converted to two-chain factor VIIa. Conversion of affinity-purified factor VII to factor VIIa resulted in up to a 119-fold activation of the coagulant activity, which is 2.7–4 times greater than the activatability reported for factor VII prepared by other methods. Zur et al. calculated that pure factor VII, uncontaminated by traces of factor VIIa, would be activated 123-fold upon conversion to factor VIIa. The close agreement between observed activatability of affinity-purified factor VII and the theoretical prediction suggests that we have isolated factor VII essentially free of factor VIIa. The purification data from three lots of bovine plasma yield an estimate for the plasma concentration of factor VII from 10.1 nM to 18.5 nM.