Fifty-four patients with severe aplastic anemia were treated with horse anti-human thymocyte globulin (ATG) and androgens. Thirty of these patients also received an infusion of HLA-haploidentical marrow cells. Only those patients having evidence of hematologic recovery within 3 mo after ATG therapy were considered responders to the immunosuppressive regimen. Of 53 patients evaluable for response, 21 had complete or partial responses and 7 had minimal improvement by defined criteria. The remaining patients did not respond or died. Factors correlated with response to therapy included a short duration of aplasia and a high admission granulocyte count. Thirty-six patients (66.7%) are surviving between 18 and 43 mo, and 18 have died. Deaths were due to hemorrhage and/or infection. Short duration of aplasia and high granulocyte counts also correlated with survival, as did younger age. Four patients with complete or partial responses had a recurrence of severe aplasia 6–17 mo after their first course of ATG. Three of these patients were retreated with ATG (and oxymetholone in two cases). All three had second responses to therapy, but two of the three have had second relapses. The fourth patient responded to oxymetholone alone, but died after a second relapse. Mismatched marrow infusion had no effect on the incidence of response or survival.

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