We designed a protocol (VAPA) that featured 14 mo of intensive postremission induction chemotherapy in an effort to improve remission durations for patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). One hundred and seven patients under 50 yr of age were entered into this study. The rate of complete remission is 70%. A Kaplan-Meier analysis of patients entering remission predicts that 56% +/- 7% (+/-SE) of patients less than 18 yr and 45% +/- 9% of patients aged 18–50 yr will remain in remission at 3 yr (median follow-up is 43 mo). Patients with the monocytic subtype had a statistically significant shorter duration of remission (2-sided p less than 0.05). There was a high incidence of primary CNS relapse in children. Thirty-one of 41 patients who completed the regimen remain in remission without maintenance therapy. We conclude that the VAPA protocol continues to offer a promising approach to treatment of AML.